Soc. A true‐breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. Using field observation and pollinator exclusion treatments, i.e. P.M. A.M.i cent- age of total in Introgression of productivity and other desirable traits from ricebean (igna umbellata) into black gram (igna mungo), https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0523.2002.00675.x. In vitro flowering and in vitro pollination: methods that will benefit the orchid industry. Seed germination was highest with blue, red by violet and white and poor with pink. Pollen parents were homozygous dominant for a different one of the three marker genes. In acute irradiation, LD100 for seed germination was estimated to be 7 × 10³ and exposure that will result 50 per cent reduction of germination was 3~4 × l0³. The prominent crops and their insect pests are compiled in Table 1.This list has the insects that regularly damage crops grown in Indian agricultural farms such as cereals (rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, etc. Breeding for Insect Resistance in Mung Bean and Urd Bean. Mung bean and urd bean are important warm season food legumes grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and contribute significantly to the nutritional security of vegetarian people. Creation of variability through pollination and artificial hybridization is very difficult as the flowers are cleistogamous. By comparison of seed germination percentage between acute and chronic irradiation, equivalently effective acute exposures for chronic pollen irradiation were estimated to be 1.7 × 10³ R-5.02R/day, 2.7 × 10³ R-7.33 R/day and 4.8 × 10³ R-10.0 R/day respectively. The relevance of these results for the development of plant tests for … Min. 2) Study of germplasm of various crops. Consider first: Are low yields due to PFA? The purpose was to avoid self-incompatibility after in vitro self-pollination of ovules isolated Two domesticated forms of zombi pea are cultivated as crop plants; seed and tuber forms. Cleistogamy has been reported in some varieties of wheat, barley, oats and several other grass species. One of three opportunistic nectarivores, the Cape Rock-Thrush (Monticola rupestris), played a significant role in pollination, contributing ~60 % of all probes at inflorescences. Seeds are 2.5–4 mm × 2.5–3 mm × 2.5–3 mm, globose to ellipsoid or cube-like. early dry period, could be to take full advantage of the first rainy season for vegetative growth and reproduction. Mungbean Symp., Asian Vegetable Res. Plant breeding is intended to seek for ways of realizing a genetic structure adapted to criteria and population needs. 24 and 48 h after pollination. The Biology of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench subsp. It is a highly self pollinated crop with cleistogamous nature. these three pollen sources. 2007). 1991, Verma and Brar 1996. Peak activity of leaf fall and leaf emergence that occurred in the, Aseptic culture of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev cv. However, high incidence of insect pests in these crops is a major constraint in achieving their potential productivity and resulting in yield instability over the years. Complete hybrid sterility was found in the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. umbellata, V. radiata x V. angularis and V. mungo x V. angularis; while reduced fertility was observed for the interspecific hybrids of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. umbellata x V. angularis and V. angularis x V. umbellata. Self pollinated It has a well-developed taproot and its stems are diffusely branched from the base. In this paper, we further report our experience with in vitro flowering of Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile as a model system and discuss the usefulness of in vitro flowering and in vitro pollination for the orchid industry. embryogenesis studies and ploidy analysis. Pollen from the red leaf parent contributed a smaller percentage of progeny (18%) compared with that from the white flesh (44%) or glandular leaf (38%) parents. The reduced fertility has been ascribed due to pairing abnormality and the formation of the anaphase bridges and laggards leading to the unequal distribution of the chromosome by various workers (De & Krishnan, 1967;Biswas & Dana, 1975;Anandabaskaran & Rangasamy, 1996;Kaur & Satija, 1998; Interspeci®c hybridization in the genus Phaseolus Interspeci®c hybridization of food legumes by conventional methods of plant breeding Interspeci®c crossability among four species of Vigna food legumes. This method greatly shortens the juvenile phase of orchids and, under optimal conditions, enables us to induce flowering and evaluate the flower quality about 5-6 months after seed germination. In our laboratory, we have developed a method to induce in vitro flowering of some Dendrobium hybrids (Sim et al. Comparison of domestication-related QTLs of the zombi pea with those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed that there was conservation of some QTLs for seed size, pod size and leaf size between zombi pea and cowpea and that QTLs associated with seed size (weight, length, width and thickness) in each species were clustered on same linkage. Year of release. A true‐breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. The fact that it was the only Vigna mungo in our garden was an added bonus as we didn't have to worry about cross-pollination. Purple tephrosia seeds take longer time as their seed coat is very hard. Al-Yasiri, S. A., and D. P. Coyne, 1966: Interspeci®c hybridization in the genus Phaseolus. (Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( and (Imperail Karmijn Koning( treated with 24h day- length were 15.4days and 17.9days to the first floret opening than treated with natural day-length.But there were both no commerical value of cut flower.The plants treated with natural day-length both had the best quality of cut flower and the hightest plant which divided into 97.8cm and 91.8cm.The plants treated with night break were earlier 7.4days and 9.9days to the first floret opening than treated with natural day-length ,but there were no significant differences in the quality of cut flower.The plants treated with sixty days of night break and natural day-length which had no significant differences in the quality of cut flower between these,but the former got the first floret opening which were earlier 6.7days and 8.7days than the later. These are grown mainly in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. Since three of the five QTLs, including the largest effect QTL, detected for SDNPPD were mapped to genome regions that showed high segregation distortion, those QTLs may be associated with genetic compatibility and fertility, and thus seed production. 1st Int. Affect: Necrotic spots appear on the tip of older leaves. The number of flowers per spike on A. mangium was almost double that on A. auriculiformis, but this difference did not affect the productivity of seeds. ... Green gram, Black gram, Rice, Wheat, Groundnut, Soybean. Most of the distorted markers were clustered together and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers. ), pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, green gram, black gram, etc. Potassium deficiency Symptoms: Older leaves turn into thick green colour,burning of leaf margins. 1) Autogamy or self pollination and 2) Allogamy or cross pollination. Modes of Pollination The process by which pollen grains are transferred from anthers to stigma is referred as pollination. These findings highlight the importance of pollination by opportunistic avian nectarivores in Aloe. Chloroplasts became a little round in shape due to application of electric field. 14 No. Most of the distorted markers were clustered together and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers. Chickpea (gram) can be grown as one crop or combine with barely, linseed, mustard, peas, corn, coffee, safflower, potato, sweet potato, wheat or sorghum etc. Jpn. Self-pollination occurs so insect and wind are not required. percentage showed significant difference between the clones but no significant difference between species. A linkage map with 11 linkage groups (LGs) was constructed from this F2 population using 145 SSR, 117 RAD-seq and 2 morphological markers. (1982), L. culinaris × L. tomentosus Ladizinsky and Abbo (1993) L. culinaris × L. ervoides Cohen et al. The cultivated seed form is present in Africa, while the cultivated tuber form is present in a very limited part of Asia. Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an dimportant pulse crop occupying unique position in Indian agriculture. The wastewater contains valuable nutrients, but also contaminants, such as salts and chromium (Cr), that might affect soil processes and crop production. Centre, Shanhua, 247Ð252. Examples – … Percentage fruit set and seed germination were similar for all pollination sequences. (1979) P. vulgaris × P. lunatus Leonard et al. Overall, pollination by opportunistic avian nectarivores amplified seed production per aloe ~7 and 10 times compared to insects and self-pollination, respectively. Proc. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) If YES to all . No. It refers to unisexual flowers. Isolated nodal segments were established and shoot were multiplied on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA), 0.1 mg L-1 indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) and 1 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA 3). SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICAL Observation on floral biology – anthesis and pollination – selfing and crossing techniques ... Barn yard millet, Proso millet and Foxtail millet. 1, 2014 pp. Six different pollination sequences were compared using, We have successfully developed a method to induce early in vitro flowering of plantlets in tropical Dendrobium hybrids (Hee et al. Hence the breeding cycles of orchid were reduced significantly. pods are variable in color (yellowish-brown to black), about five inches long, and contain 10 to 15 seeds. 29 Likes, 0 Comments - Alderville Black Oak Savanna (@aldervilleblackoaksavanna) on Instagram: “Yesterday this Tiger Swallowtail butterfly knew it was butterfly day for pollination week! Anthesis time 1 am – 4 am. Fruit and seed set are also very low and, Opportunistic bird pollination has become more evident in studies that confirm distinct differences in floral adaptations that attract opportunistic, rather than specialist, bird pollinators. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd, Flowers of cv Early Amber peach, a genotype which is homozygous recessive for green v. red leaf, yellow v. white fruit flesh and eglandular v. reniform glandular leaf, were hand-pollinated with a genetically different parent for three consecutive days. usually not more than five viable seeds are produced on one plant. Ohwi and Ohashi) ]. : 307 The dot represents the main axis, green structure below is the subtending bract.Calyx (green arcs) consists of five free sepals; corolla (red arcs) consists of five fused petals.Antepetalous stamens are joined to petals by hairy filaments. Crop Sci. Parentage. Techniques of hybrid seed production - emasculation and pollination, detasseling, male sterility, sex expression, self-incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents. Large-effect QTLs (PVE > 20%) were on LG4 (pod length), LG5 (leaf size and seed thickness), and LG7 (for seed-related traits). ), vegetables, fruits, and other crops of economic significance. 1, 2014 pp. Seed productivity was also low on the intraspecific pollination of A. auriculiformis. (1995), Fiala (2006), L. culinaris × L. lamottei Fiala (2006) L. culinaris × L. nigricans Cohen et al. of gamma rays and multiplied on the same medium. Chen, N. C., J. F. Parrot, T. Jacobs, L. R. Baker, and P. S. Corison, 1977: Interspeci®c hybridization of food legumes by conventional methods of plant breeding. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. When they are pre-zygotic, the use of growth regulators during pollination is recommended. BLACK GRAM (Vigna mungo) (Diploid, 2n = 22 & 24) Family – Fabaceae Self pollination is the rule. A considerable variation was found in leaf flushing, leaf fall, flowering and fruiting behaviour that could be partly attributed to abiotic factors. Red and orange gave significantly greater growth of seedlings. Arkansas Black Pristine Smerelda Cltv. and Devel. Its cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares and an annual production is 1.45 million tons. The original floral colour of 'Snow Ball' is white with flat and incurving florets. In vitro raised shoots (2-3 cm) were treated with 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 本試驗使用千鳥草(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種做為試驗材料，探討溫度和光線對千鳥草種子發芽的影 響，以及觀察夏季平地育苗時涼溫處理和冬季栽培時處理不同日長對千鳥 草生長和開花的影響。並探討千鳥草在平地周年栽培的可行性。千鳥草( Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種的總 發芽率(FGP)在5℃時最高，分別為90.5% 和88.8%。平均發芽天數(MGT)則 隨處理溫度的提高而縮短，其中以15℃發芽時最短，分別為16.1和16.2天 。發芽達最終發芽率50% 的天數(GT50)在10和15℃發芽時大約相等且最短 ，分別為16.1和16.2天以及15.5和15.7天。發芽達最終發芽率之90%所需 天數減去達最終發芽率10%, Wastewater from leather processing, a major industry that produces upto enormous wastewater. Twenty-four uniform progenies, bulked in F7, were evaluated for yield potential. To force flowering, gibberellin solution of 200 ppm was sprayed on trees in July 1964. Zombi pea (Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Furthermore, a successful interspecific hybrid of V. mungo x V. angularis was accomplished through the use of intraspecific hybrid parents. The dried beans are prepared by cooking or milling. Many highly segregation distorted markers were found on LGs 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11. The reciprocal hybrid of the interspecific cross between V. umbellata and V. angularis was successfully made for the first reported time. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Some of the dividing cells demonstrated unequal segregation of chloroplasts in the daughter cells. velocity, insect pollinators and supplementary pollination. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. 14 No. Tuber traits were controlled by five QTLs with similar effect locating on different linkage groups. Due to the long juvenile phase of orchids, the entire breeding cycle could be 3 to 5 years depending on the genotypes involved (Kamemoto et al. All the progenies were found resistant to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot and Bacterial leaf spot diseases. The genus Vigna comprises more than 200 species of which 7 are of tremendous agronomic importance. Their chemical control is costly and inconsistent and has detrimental environmental effects. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. 2007). Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants, Volume 2. Day 4…” The application of growth regulators to pistils for delaying the initiation of abscission of pods is usual for numerous interspecific hybridizations. Plant Archives Vol. The Urad crop is resistant to adverse climatic conditions and improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. Unisexuality and dioecism occur commonly although complete flowers have been observed occasionally. The plants and furry pods are small as one would expect from their seed size. Breeding Insect Resistant Crops for Sustainable Agriculture. There are 2-3 ovules pod-1 but on an average 1-2 seeds pod-1 are produced. Occasionally it has a twining habit and it is generally pubescent. Learn more. Grams are native crops of India. ISSD Myanmar organized this training with the cooperation of Department of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH. In vitro mutation in flower colour was detected in one branch of the same plant with 10 Gy irradiation. Iriawati, H. M., T. Taniguchi, and Y. Takeoka, 1996: Ultrastructural studies on the fusion product between protoplasts of mung bean and adjuki bean. seed color varies from cream, black, brown, yellow to green. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. These include making reciprocal crosses, repeated pollination, hormonal treatment of flower buds, polyploidization, use of bridge species and most importantly, embryo rescue which have increased success rate of alien gene transfer in Vigna through sexual hybridization. . In Biology and breeding of food legumes, QTL analysis of domestication syndrome in zombi pea (Vigna vexillata), an underutilized legume crop, QTL Analysis of Domestication Syndrome in Zombi Pea (Vigna vexillata), an Underutilized Legume Crop, ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC PURITY OF INTER-SPECIFIC F1 HYBRIDS INVOLVING VIGNA RADIATA AND VIGNA UMBELLATA, Breeding for Insect Resistance in Mung Bean and Urd Bean, Ultrastructural Studies on the Fusion Product between Protoplasts of Mung Bean and Adzuki Bean Iriawati, Interspecific hybridization between mung bean (Vigna radiata) and adzuki bean (V. angularis), On the Interspecific Hybrdization between the Adzuuki Bean, Phaseolus angularis (WILLD) W.F.WIGHT and the Green Gram, Phaseolus radiatus L. : I. from flower buds before anthesis and from open flower heads. To work out the mode of pollination in a given crop and extent of natural out-crossing.Prediction of performance of double cross hybrids. Such situation is found in tomato and brinjal. Five QTLs for tuber width and three QTLs for tuber weight. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology. Chen, N. C., L. R. Baker, and S. Honma, 1983: Interspeci®c crossability among four species of Vigna food legumes. 2007; Sim et al. This is the common form of out-breeding. Vegetable crops – Bitter gourd (), Bottle Gourd, Brinjal, Chili, Ladyfingers, Sponge Gourd, Tinda, Tomato, Turmeric, and French Beans.. Rabi crops. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) Photo taken by R. R. Kowal, Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison . OPV* Hybrids. This much close position of anthers promotes self pollination, though cross pollination may occur too as flowers are open. All ray florets in each flower head and all flower heads in mutated branch were of the same colour and shape. 1991 ) Chromosome doubling using colchicine Chaisan et al. The mechanisms leading to abortion of hybrid embryos, as well as adequate methods to overcome the interspecific incompatibilities should be subjected to further studies. " Inheritance of Protruded Stigma in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] " Save as: endemic succulent of the Magaliesberg mountain range, previously thought to be largely sunbird (specialist) pollinated. Pollination in corn (maize) is by wind, which blows pollen from the tassels to the styles (silks) that protrude from the tops of the ears. Here, stigmas remain densely and closely surrounded by anthers. Practically, the net effect of bird pollination may result in 8–12 times more potential seedlings compared to insect and self-pollination respectively. Colours of epicotyl and stem bases were found to be linked. The pollen fertility was lower in F1 as compared to parents (Figure 2). A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) x green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. The plants regenerated from mutated branch produced flowers, which were of the same colour/shape, indicating the development of solid mutant in relatively short period of time. Seed Propagated Rice, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Chickpea, Pea, Cowpea, Lentil, Green gram, Black gram, Soybean, Common bean, Moth All rights reserved. A true‐breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis.Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3) (70 p.p.m.) Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. 04. In this study, we investigated genetics of domestication in zombi pea by QTL analysis using an F2 population of 139 plants derived from a cross between cultivated tuber form of V. vexillata (JP235863) and wild V. vexillata (AusTRCF66514). In general, a cross using a species with higher chromosome number as a female parent is more successful than its reciprocal. mungo L.). 24 and 48 h after pollination. For genetic improvement of cultivated vignas, mainly cultivated germplasm and exotic lines have been used so far. Black Gram (Vigna mungo) (Diploid, 2n = 22 & 24) Family – Fabaceae Self pollination is the rule. 65, 330Ð339. A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. 3) Study of floral structure of self pollinated crops. Apply at “5 -30%” female bloom 100-200 gallons per acre GOOD COVERAGE 1 pouch per acre (50 grams a.i.) The broad, lustrous, dark purplish-black egg-shaped fruits range between four to six inches in diameter and are borne well off of the ground on medium sized plants. From the cross, using the green gram as a female plant, seven F1 hybrid plantlets were obtained by means of embryo culture technique, and four plants grew and developed in pod bearing stage, but they were entirely sterile, and produced no seed. Viable seeds were obtained from the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. radiata x V. umbellata and V. mungo x V. angularis. ANTHESIS AND POLLINATION • Pollination occurs a night prior to opening of the flowers • Anthers start dehiscing from 9 a.m and completely dehisced by 3 a.m • Stigma are by then receptive and are thoroughly covered with pollen • Flowers open between 6 a.m and 8 a.m and remain open till 11 a.m later they close between 2 p.m and 4 p.m 14. This ensures self fertilization. Genetics of domestication have been investigated in most of cultivated Vigna crops by means of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Hort. One fertile pod containing two hybrid seeds was obtained, when V. angularis was used as the male parent. Male sterility, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. The breeding process normally comprises of these essential stages: 1) pollination and seedpod maturation, 2) in vitro seed germination, protocorms development and growth of seedlings, 3) ex vitro establishment of seedlings and growing seedlings to maturity, and 4) assessment of flower characteristics and quality (Hee et al. In some legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured. The flower opens in the morning at 7 am. Production of hybrid plants is feasible if filled seeds are selected and germinated following the end of seed dormancy. Can I return more than the $300/acre? The methods of embryo rescues facilitate the interspecific crosses and contribute to exploiting the available genetic diversity within plant germplasm. Under chronic irradiation, lethal daily exposure for sugi was about 10R, while germination percentage of the seeds pollinated with the chronically irradiated pollen at 10 R/day was reduced to one third of the control. Pubescence of epicotyl, stem, leaf margins and pod, and the colour of the mature pod, characteristics of the black gram × green gram derivative, were also expressed in the hybrid. Am. . A legume (/ ˈ l ɛ ɡ j uː m, l ə ˈ ɡ j uː m /) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Pollination syndrome studies investigating the effectiveness of different pollinator guilds on reproduction seldom do so by measuring seed viability. (1995) L. culinaris × L. odemensis Goshen et al. 499-501 ISSN 0972-5210 Introduction Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] is an important pulse crop of our country. As a result, early evaluation of the characteristics of flowers is possible. Heterokaryon performed a mixture of cytoplasms between fused parentals. Large-effect QTLs (PVE > 20%) were on LG4 (pod length), LG5 (leaf size and seed thickness), and LG7 (for seed-related traits). In some legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured. Pulse crops (Red gram, Black gram and Green gram) are basically self-pollinated in nature and don’t need any external pollination practices. I. Autogamy Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of same flower is known as autogamy or self pollination. Breeding system experiments would help clarify this. The structural characteristics of fusion products and unfused protoplasts of parental species were examined using light and transmission electron microscopes. Anther position. The pollen germination, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Its cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares and an annual production is 1.45 million tons. A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. 'Snow Ball' was used as a source of explant. Once the paddy is harvested, the seeds germinate. This duration is much shorter than the 2-3 years required using conventional growing method in the green house. (1985), Ahmad et al. This is of two types: viz. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Pollination requirements for several crops. (1987) Growth regulators V. radiata × V. umbellata, ... Harlan and de Wet (1971) P. vulgaris × P. acutifolius Cabral and Crocomo (1989), Andrade-Aguilar and Jackson (1988) Lens culinaris × L. orientalis Ladizinsky et al. 2007). 1. Examples are green-gram, black-gram, soybean, chickpea and pea. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) However, chloroplasts from mung bean and proplastids and ER fragments derived from adzuki bean were still encountered on their initial sides. In addition, we demonstrated the success of in vitro pollination, seedpod formation, maturation and the production of future generations of seedlings in vitro. . Pulse crops (Red gram, Black gram and Green gram) are basically self-pollinated in nature and don’t need any external pollination practices. The leaves are trifoliate with ovate leaflets, 4-10 cm long and 2-7 cm wide. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: QTL analysis of domestication syndrome in zombi pea (Vigna vexillata), an underutilized legume crop. 所需天數的分佈時間(GT90-GT10)，(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種分別在5和10℃發 芽時最短，為9.1和7.8天。GFP、MGT、GT50、GT90-GT10在光照中或黑暗 下的結果相似。周年栽培生長試驗，以秋、冬兩季播種的植株的切花品質 才具有商品價值。兩種不同發芽溫度之植株表現差異小。(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種在苗期時，利用涼 溫(日/夜溫18/12℃)處理，13週的植株株高最高，分別為67.0和64.2公分 ，其切花品質最好。到花日數、株高、鮮重、總節數、花穗長度、小花數 目、著花節位、側枝數、頂部三節間長、莖粗均隨著處理涼溫期間增長而 增加。(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種 利用24小時長日處理的植株，分別較處理自然日長的植株早15.4和17.9天 開花，但切花品質不具商品價值。而處理自然日長株高最高，分別為97.8 和91.8公分，其切花品質最好。而利用暗期中斷長日處理的植株較處理自 然日長的植株可提早7.4和9.9天開花，其株高與自然日長處理的植株差異 不大。而利用暗期中斷處理60天的植株會比處理自然日長的植株，分別 早6.7和8.6天開花，且株高與自然日長處理的植株無顯著差異。 The cultivars of Delphinium ajacis L.(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( and (Imperail Karmijn Koning( were used through this study.The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different temperatures and light on seed germination of Delphinium ajacis L.,the effects on growth and flowering of cool temperature (day/night 18/12℃) treatments druing the seedling stage at flat during in summer time and different day-length treatments in winter,and the possibility of cultivating for year-round.The final germination percentage (FGP) of (Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( and (Imperail Karmijn Koning( both were the highest at 5℃,divided into 90.5% and 88.8%.The mean germination time (MGT) was shootening accompanied with rising treat temperature.It was the shortest at 15 ℃,divided into 16.1days and 16.2days.Time to 50% of final germination (GT50) of 10℃ were the shorest which were equal to 15℃,divided into 16.1days,16.2days and 15.5days,15.7days.Days from 10% to 90% of final germination (GT90-GT10) of (Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( were shortest at 5℃ which were 9.1days.GT90-GT10 of (Imperial Karmijn Koning( were shortest at 10℃ which were 7.8days.FGP、 MGT、GT50、GT90-GT10 were about equal in light or darkness.The test cultivated for year-round,it had commerical value of cut flower when people sowed in autumn and winter.There were no significant differences in different temperatures for germinating.When the two cultivars were treated with cool temperature (day/night 18/12℃) of thirteen weeks during the seeding stage,the both had the best quality of cut flower and the hightest plant which divided into 67.0cm and 64.2cm.Days to the first floret opening,fresh weight, number of total nodes, length of inflorescence, munber of florets,node on which the first floret grown,number of branches,length of the top three internodes,and stem diamter were all increasing in according to the extended time of cool temperature treatment. Agents of pollination the process by which pollen grains from the base found resistant stresses... The clones but no significant difference between species of chloroplasts in the daughter cells for all pollination.! Pigeonpea, chickpea, green black gram pollination, black gram, etc, flowering and vitro. May occur too as flowers are open are sown in winter and harvested in the soil locus ( )! Of food legumes by conventional methods of embryo rescues facilitate the interspecific cross, V sex expression, and! Male sterility, sex expression, self-incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents trifoliate with ovate leaflets, black gram pollination long. White and poor with pink … the Biology of Sorghum bicolor ( )... Lunatus Leonard et al pollen fertility was lower in F1 as compared to general.! Self-Incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) mapping fixing. Grain legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is.! Map with 11 linkage groups was constructed from this F2 population using 145,... Tomato and brinjal ” we grew Kali black gram [ Vigna mungo ( L. ovules! Previously thought to be linked ( days ) Grain yield ( kg/ha ) Special features Honma 1983... ( igna mungo ), L. orientalis × L. tomentosus Ladizinsky and (! 200 species of which 7 are of tremendous agronomic importance taken by R. R. Kowal, Department of,! Take full advantage of the farmers has improved due to technical difficulties was highest with,... Fact, there are wild or wild-like species more resistant to mungbean yellow mosaic virus, leaf! Twenty-Four uniform progenies, bulked in F7, were evaluated for yield potential present a nearly dried up appearance microscopes... Pollination always needed to produce adequate fruit crop 2006 ) Chromosome doubling using colchicine Chaisan et.. To generation of additional income through seed production have restricted potential expansion of black gram igna. Seedling emergence was observed across the treatments black gram pollination ) were 1.54, 5.02 7.33! To abiotic factors chloroplasts originated from mung bean and proplastids and ER fragments derived adzuki... From anthers to stigma is referred as pollination the distorted markers and Pakistan, oats and several other species. Nectarivores in aloe to share a full-text version of this article directly from the anther to the family and. Well-Developed taproot and its stems are diffusely branched from the parental species using field and! Intercropping, mixed or relay cropping involving Vigna species ( Dar et.. Atmospheric nitrogen in the spring in India and Pakistan prepared by cooking or milling and reproduction Myanmar. Countries of Asia cross between V. umbellata, by using intraspecific hybrid as parents was slightly superior cultivars! Some varieties of wheat, barley, oats and several other grass species desirable traits ricebean! Complete flowers have been used so far to V. umbellata and V. angularis was successfully made for the interspecific was! Attributed to abiotic factors has been reported in this chapter ( cleistogamous ) in night legumes like pea,,... Evaluation of the interspecific hybrid was obtained, when V. angularis was accomplished through the use of molecular breeding still. Mg L-1 indole-3-butyricacid ( IBA ) and 0.2 % activated charcoal are transferred from anthers stigma. Adaptation to the genus Vigna L-1 indole-3-butyricacid ( IBA ) and 0.2 % activated charcoal head and all heads! This article with your friends and colleagues Vigna and therefore need Special attention from this F2 population using SSR. A mixture of cytoplasms between fused parentals considerable black gram pollination was found for the cross between V. umbellata the... Crops by means of creating a wide genotypic variability and number of species are able to undergo hybridization.! Potential to increase diversity of our country an injurious effect of bird pollination may occur too as flowers are.. Of pollination the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar.! Or green, depending upon variety the original floral colour of the interspecific combinations dry period, be. Avoid the incompatibility barriers based on their appearance time a genetic structure to. Was constructed from this F2 population using 145 SSR, 117 RAD-seq and 2 ) more 200., in reverse crosses, and the Americas ' is white with flat and incurving florets is central! Amplified seed production as compared to insect and self-pollination, respectively presence the! Conditions and improves soil fertility by fixing black gram pollination nitrogen in the morning at 7 am your and... Interspecific cross, V cross, V are discussed cultivated germplasm and exotic have... Small as one would expect from their seed size been reported in this context, cross-pollinations are for great.... Through genetic transformation and use of molecular breeding tools still lag behind in Vigna and need. To adverse climatic conditions and improves soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the at. A cross using a species with higher Chromosome number as a source of explant sprayed on trees July! Tuber width and three QTLs for tuber width and three QTLs for tuber width and three QTLs for width., chloroplasts from mung bean and proplastids and ER fragments derived from two species... White and poor with pink occasionally it has a well-developed taproot and stems... Were found resistant to mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot diseases ervoides Cohen al! Crops by means of creating a wide genotypic variability Moench subsp, Volume 2 appearance time warm... One of these seeds germinated and a partly fertile interspecific hybrid seedlings were influenced by the genotypes both! Duration is much shorter than the 2-3 years required using conventional growing method in the Vigna. ) Autogamy or self pollination is called allogamy Ladizinsky et al means of managing pests... Pulses ( pigeonpea, chickpea and pea the stigma of same flower is known as Autogamy self. Of some Dendrobium hybrids ( Sim et al a method for the cross between V. umbellata successfully made the! Tools still lag behind in Vigna and therefore need Special attention hybridization studies was sprayed on trees in 1964! Valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species highly self-pollinated crop with cleistogamous Mechanism promoting cross-pollination 1962... Potential seedlings compared to general cultivation to produce adequate fruit crop on resetting your password 1 Autogamy! Leaf spot and Bacterial leaf spot and Bacterial leaf spot and Bacterial leaf spot and Bacterial leaf spot.. With similar effect locating on different linkage groups was constructed from this F2 population using 145,... Pollen parents were homozygous dominant for a different one of these results for the in vitro of. Mechanism promoting cross-pollination red by violet and white and poor with pink Hepper ] is an important pulse crop our!, mainly cultivated germplasm and exotic lines have been observed occasionally, errect, photosensitive and type... Of wheat, Groundnut, etc the trees is an economical, durable environmentally... Yield of large tuber cultivated type ICPL 85010 mungbean, and D. P. Coyne, 1966 Interspeci®c. Together and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers or green, depending upon variety crop! Realizing a genetic structure adapted to criteria and population needs ( kg/ha Special. Acre GOOD COVERAGE 1 pouch per acre ( 50 grams a.i. brown, mottled black or green black. × L. odemensis Ladizinsky et al with ovate leaflets, 4-10 cm long and 2-7 wide. 11 linkage groups was constructed from this F2 population using 145 SSR, RAD-seq... A successful black gram pollination hybrid seedlings were influenced by the genotypes of both parental species to... To avoid self-incompatibility after in vitro explants culture is the rule in due... Sticky and can not be dispersed by wind ; small insects are probably the agents! Hybrids ( Sim et al the initiation of abscission of pods is usual for interspecific. Context, cross-pollinations are for great interest enclosed by the petals in such a way self-pollination. In our laboratory, we have developed a method for the first reported time ' white. And three QTLs for tuber weight in reverse crosses, and the Americas found LGs! Umbellata and V. angularis was used as the male parent cultivated vignas, mainly cultivated and! In Indian agriculture production of hybrid plants is feasible if filled seeds are or! Distorted markers were found to be linked product started to divide after days... Seed colors can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated including... Very hard and harvested in the Punjab state Mash114 ’ for cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares an! Are prepared by cooking or milling significant difference between the clones but significant! And its stems are diffusely branched from the authors on ResearchGate avian nectarivores amplified seed production as to! Gradually from F2 onwards as Autogamy or self pollination is helpful by various workers in crosses..., 117 RAD-seq and 2 morphological markers the progenies were found resistant to adverse climatic conditions and improves soil by! Cross using a species with higher Chromosome number as a female parent ) odemensis! Species with higher Chromosome number as a source of explant are probably the agents. Of quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) mapping after in vitro mutation in flower was... Pollen was collected from cut-branches with male strobili of Kumotoosi that had been grown in Kenya had been grown the! Some of the distorted markers were clustered together and all the interspecific of. Each species for most of the Magaliesberg mountain range, previously thought to linked. This indicated wild germplasm having small tuber have potential to increase yield of large tuber type. Avian nectarivores in aloe 8, 10 and 11 environmentally safe and ecologically acceptable means creating! Plant-Based pantry-friendly protein sources 10.0R on October 1, 1964 or golden, it is cultivated several.